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In-Building Cellular Enhancement System
Time: 2015-11-16 09:56:49     Copyfrom: Manufacturer of Passive Products

An In-Building Cellular Enhancement System, commonly implemented in conjunction with a distributed antenna system (DAS), is a telecommunications solution which is used to extend and distribute the cellular signal of a given mobile network operators (hereafter abbreviated as an MNO) within a building. In the United States, operators commonly supported by such solutions are include AT&T Mobility, Verizon Wireless, Sprint Corporation, T-Mobile US, in addition to smaller regional carriers as required. Below ground level, large buildings and high rises are examples where mobile phones are unable to properly reach the carrier’s macro or outdoor network. In these environments, the in-building cellular enhancement system will connect to the carrier’s signal source which is typically a bi-directional amplifier or a base transceiver station. This signal source transmits (and receives) the mobile network operator’s licensed radio frequency. This frequency is then transported within the building using coaxial cable, optical fiber or Category 5e/Category 6 twisted pair cable. In-building coverage antennas are strategically placed to provide the best overall coverage for users.

1)Passive In-building Cellular Enhancement System
Coaxial cable only systems are typically referred to as a passive system when all system components (other than the signal source) are coaxial cable, coverage antennas and other components that do not require AC or DC power to function.

1.1) Pros and Cons of a Passive System
A passive system is less expensive to install and is best suited for smaller buildings where one or possibly two MNOs need to be enhanced within the building and are not usually installed in spaces over 100,000 square feet (9,300 m2). Passive systems require the RF power to be balanced among all the coverage antennas so there is uniform signal strength throughout the building. Expanding a passive system after the initial deployment could require a re-engineering of the entire system to ensure proper operation throughout the building. The number of in-building antennas and coverage area is dependent on the output power of the signal source.

2)Active In-Building Cellular Enhancement System
Systems that require conversion of the radio frequency into other forms, such as optical signals, use products that require AC or DC power to perform the conversion near the signal source. Additional products located throughout the building are then used to convert the signals back into native radio frequency format, which are then transmitted through the coverage antennas. Since the equipment at both ends of the cable require AC or DC power to operate, the system is considered to be active

2.2)Pros and Cons of an Active System
An active system can be deployed in large buildings and/or within a campus of buildings by converting and transporting the radio frequency over optical fiber. Many active systems have been deployed covering areas of 1,000,000 square feet (93,000 m2) and larger. Active systems are best suited when there is a need to support multiple MNOs or large single buildings or campuses with multiple buildings. Expansion of an active system is usually in the form of adding more active equipment to increase the number of coverage antennas within the building, to increase the number of MNOs, or to increase the service offerings of an MNO such as adding 3G or 4G services. In a properly designed active system, no reengineering or rebalancing of the original system is required when the system is expanded. Optical fiber systems can provide coverage in areas up to 2 km from the signal source making them ideal for campus environments. Active systems will always be more expensive than a passive system.